Class 10 Geography (English Medium) Chapter 01 Seasons and Time - Questions and Answers

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Class 10 Geography Questions and Answers
Chapter 01 Seasons and Time
Seasons and Time - Questions and Answers
1. What are the reasons for the different seasons?
   * Revolution of the Earth
   * Tilt of the  Earth’s axis
   * The parallelism of the Earth’s axis
   * Apparent movement of the sun

2. What is a revolution of the Earth?
- The Earth revolves around the Sun in an elliptical orbit. This is known as a revolution.

3. What is the parallelism of the Earth’s axis?
- The axis of the Earth is tilted at an angle of 66 ½° from the orbital plane and 23½° from the vertical plane. The Earth maintains this tilt throughout its revolution. This is known as parallelism of the Earth’s axis.

4. What is the apparent movement of the sun?
- Parallelism is maintained the same throughout the revolution. So the position of the Sun in relation to the Earth varies apparently between Tropic of Cancer (23½° North) and Tropic of Capricorn(23½° South). This is known as the apparent movement of the Sun.

5. Which are the important seasons on earth?
- Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter

6. Different seasons are getting repeated in a cyclic manner. Why?
- Because of the apparent movement of the sun between
 Tropic of Cancer (23½°N) and Tropic of Capricorn (23½°S)

7. Seasonal changes are not very obvious in tropical regions. Why?
- Because of the incidence of a large amount of Sun's rays throughout the year.

8. Seasonal changes are obvious in which zones?
- In the mid latitudinal or temperate zones.

9. Explain equinoxes.
- The apparent position of the Sun during the Earth's revolution will be over the Equator on March 21 and September 23. Hence the length of day and night will be equal during these days on both the hemispheres. These days are called equinoxes.

10. Compare the Summer Solstice and Winter Solstice in the Northern Hemisphere.
* Summer Solstice 
- The apparent position of the sun shifts from the equator to the northern hemisphere from March 21 to June 21. The sun will be vertically above the Tropic of Cancer on June 21. This day is known as the summer solstice, has the longest day in the northern hemisphere and the longest night in the southern hemisphere
* Winter Solstice 
- The apparent position of the sun shifts from the equator to the southern hemisphere from September 23 to December 22. The sun reaches vertically above the Tropic of Capricorn on December 22. This day is known as the winter solstice, has the longest day in the southern hemisphere and the longest night in the northern hemisphere.   

11. Compare the spring season and autumn season.
* Spring season
- between March21 and June21
- the season of transition from winter to summer
- the atmospheric temperature increases considerably.
- There is a lengthening of day and shortening of night
- Sprouting of plants, blooming of mango trees and bearing buds  on jackfruit trees
* Autumn season 
- Between September 23 and December 22 
- the season of transition from summer to winter
- the atmospheric temperature decreases considerably.
- There is a shortening of day and lengthening of night
- Trees shed their leaves. 

12. The apparent movement of the sun and Seasons.

13. What is Utharayanam?
- The northward apparent movement of the Sun from Tropic of Capricorn to Tropic of Cancer is termed as 'Utharayanam'. The duration of the day in the northern hemisphere gradually increases during this period. 

14. What is'Dakshinayanam'?
- The southward apparent movement of the Sun from Tropic of Cancer to Tropic of Capricorn is termed as 'Dakshinayanam'. The duration of the day in the southern hemisphere gradually increases during this period. 
15. What is the duration of day and night in the south polar regions, when the Sun is respectively over the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere?
- When the Sun is over the Northern Hemisphere, the south polar regions experience the continuous night for six months.
When the Sun is in the Southern Hemisphere, the south polar regions experience continuous daylight for six months. 

16. The people of which Indian State can see the Sunrise first?
- Arunachal Pradesh

17. Local time
- The time estimated at each place based on the position of the sun is Local time.

18. How is time calculated?
The angular distance of the Earth is=360°
The time required to complete the 360°rotation=24 hrs
    =24 × 60minutes
    =1440minutes
Therefore the time required for the Earth  to complete the rotation of 1°longitude =1440÷360
= 4minutes
So in 4 minutes, the Earth completes 1° rotation.
Therefore in 60 minutes, the Earth completes 15°rotation.
That is, with 1hour, the Earth rotates 15°.
So for every 15°changes, the time change is 1 hour.

19. Greenwich Time(GMT) and Time zones 
- The zero degree longitude is known as the Greenwich Meridian. It acquires its name from Greenwich, the place where the Royal British observatory is situated and through which this line passes. Time is calculated worldwide is based on the Greenwich line. Hence this line is also known as Prime Meridian. The local time at the Prime Meridian is known as the Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Based on the Greenwich line, the world is divided into 24 zones, each with a time difference of one hour. These are known as time zones.    

20. Time zones 
- Based on the Greenwich Merdian, the world is divided into 24 zones, each with a time difference of one hour. These are known as time zones.  

21. Standard time 
- The local time would be different at each longitude. It would create a lot of confusion. To solve this, the longitude that passes through the middle of a country is selected as a standard meridian. The local time at the standard meridian is the standard time.

22. Indian Standard Time  
- The 82 ½° E longitude is considered the standard meridian of India. The local time along this longitude is generally considered as the common time of India. This is known as the Indian Standard Time.

23. International Date Line
- 180° longitude is known as International Date Line. There is a difference of 24 hours on both sides of 180° longitude. So the travellers who cross 180° longitude from the east to the west calculate time by advancing one day. The travellers who cross the line from the west to east deduct one day. This line is not a straight line. The land area has been avoided along 180° longitude. 

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